My project is about Ferdinand Magellan. I chose him because he was the first person to travel round the world, but he did it in two parts. He was the first person to go around South America. He named the Pacific Ocean because it was so peaceful compared to the Atlantic.
Magellan came from Portugal and he lived in Lisbon. I went with my mum and dad to Portugal on holiday and went to Lisbon. I tried with my mum and dad to visit the castle where he probably lived but even though we could see it at the top of the hill we could not find it. We went to Cape St Vincent to a place called Sagres. Henry the Navigator , who was a prince and one of Portugal's first explorers, had a school of navigation at Sages. There is a huge compass on the ground. This is a statue of Henry the Navigator with me and my dad in front of it. He has a sword because as well as being an explorer he was protector of the Algarve and fought many battles.
He was a Portuguese navigator and explorer who sailed under the flags of Portugal (1502 - 1516) and Spain (1519 - 1521). He commanded the first expedition to sail round the world, and was the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. he proved that the Earth was round. He died in the Philippines but his crew carried on the voyage round the world. many people think it was the greatest navigational feat in history.
Magellan was born in 1480 in Estoraos, in the Ponte de Lima County, in northern Portugal. His father was Rui de Magalhaes and his mother Alda de Mesquita who belonged to the Portuguese nobility. When he was 10 years old his parents died. he became a court page to Queen Leonor in Lisbon when he was 12. While he was at court he was educated and in 1496 he was promoted to squire. He worked as a clerk in the marine department, where he helped get ships ready for trade along the West coast of Africa. When he was a page he learnt of the voyages of Christopher Columbus and later Vasco de Gama. Magellan was 19 when Vasco de Gama sailed back to Lisbon loaded with silks, pearls and spices from India. This was the longest voyage until that time. Magellan really wanted to be a sailor but King John was murdered and the new king, Manuel, did not like exploration and did not like Magellan. he would not let Magellan go to sea for 6 years.
King Manuel wanted money and power. The Arab traders were rich because they brought spices to Europe from the East. Manuel decided that he would do all the trading instead.. So he built 22 fighting ships to chase the Arab traders from the seas. This was Magellan's big chance and he asked to go to sea again. This time the king said yes and put him in charge of a galley. he was 25 years old and the year was 1505.
He sailed to India with the fleet of Francisco de Almedia, Portugal's first Viceroy to that country. he took part in sea battles against the Arabs and Turks. he sank and destroyed many ships. He was wounded in a great battle against a large Arab fleet near the port of din in North West India and the Portuguese won.
Magellan was interested in exploring more than fighting and as reward the king had given him command of a ship. He sailed with an expedition and went down the Malacca straits to the Spice Islands and continued North East into the unknown and discovered the Philippines.
There was a treaty made in 1494 called the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was that any land discovered East of an imaginary line belonged to Portugal and anything West belonged to Spain. The line went North to South through Brazil. When Magellan discovered the Philippines he said that they might belong to Spain because they were so far East. Nobody knew how big the Earth was so Magellan could have been right King Manuel was furious because that meant all the gold and spices belonged to Spain.
In 1512 Magellan went back to Lisbon and was sent to fight the Moroccans at Azamor. During the battle Magellan was wounded and limped for life afterwards. In 1514 Magellan went back to Lisbon and asked for an increase in his royal allowance but King Manuel had heard stories about him that said he had misbehaved while he was away. The stories were not true but the king refused to give him the money. Magellan was sent back to Morocco. In 1516 Magellan asked again for an increase in allowance but again the king said no. Magellan had an idea of sailing West to the Spice Islands instead of east and asked the king to support him. The king said "no and I don't want you anymore."
Magellan had been studying astronomy and navigation with Rui Faleiro who also believed there was a route West to the Spice Islands. Manuel had refused Magellan so they went to Spain to ask King Charles I to help them instead. Magellan and Faleiro gave up their Portuguese nationality and became Spaniards. They had asked the king many times, telling him that they could prove that the Spice Islands were in the Spanish hemisphere according to the Treaty of Tordesillas. On 22 March 1518 the king finally agreed to help them. In 1517 Magellan had married Beatrix Barbosa and they had had a son called Rodrigo and soon he would have to leave them behind.
The king gave Magellan 5 ships. They were called the Trinidad, San Antonio, Santiago, Concepcion and Victoria. It took over a year to get ready to sail. Magellan had employed many Portuguese sailors and the Spanish became very suspicious. The king forced Magellan to take Spanish sailors instead.
On 20 September 1519, Magellan set sail from Sanlucar de Barrameda in Southern Spain. Unfortunately Faleiro could not sail because he went mad.
20 September: Waved farewell to my wife and baby son and set sail with 5 ships and my crew of 261 men. The crew was made up from 9 different countries. We carry 20,000 small brass bells as presents for the natives.
26 October: I arrested my Spanish captain of the San Antonio because he disobeyed orders.
13 November: The crossing of the Atlantic has been good apart from the Spanish crewmen being unhappy.
17 November: Landed in Brazil. Stopped to get more food and water and had 2 weeks rest.
1 December: Sailed South looking for a passage through to the Spice Islands.
9 February: I discovered some natives who were over 7 feet tall and we managed to capture 2 to take back to Spain.
15 February: Another false lead! This passage turned out to be a large river, Rio de la Plata.
28 February: I am annoyed because I can not find the passage through and the men continue to grumble.
31 March: I landed in San Julian and stayed there for the winter while the weather was bad.
17 April: Disaster! There was a bad storm which destroyed my ship the Santiago but the crew is safe.
Easter Day: A mutiny broke out! I had to execute the leader.
24 August: Set sail again. I marooned 2 troublemakers on an island.
21 October: Hurrah! I discovered a likely passage and we waved our flags and fired our guns to celebrate.
3 November: Another mutiny! This time on board the San Antonio, our supply ship, and it has turned back.
28 November: At last, after 38 days my 3 ships have sailed into a beautiful and peaceful ocean and I have called it the Pacific Ocean. I cried with Joy.
6 February: 69 days and still no sight of land. My food has run out and we are now eating rats, ox hides and sawdust. The water is yellow and stinking. The men all have scurvy and are all weak and exhausted.
6 March: After 99 days my ships have reached an island called Guam. Sadly 19 men have died including our 2 giant natives.
7 March: Unfriendly natives! The natives stole a small boat and we burned their village and killed 6 men in the fight to get it back. We managed to get enough food to carry on the voyage but are unable to stay and rest.
17 March: I have reached the Philippines and landed on Cebu. This means I am the FIRST person to sail all the way around the world! We will rest here for a while. No one wants to go back the way we came because it was too hard.
18 March: The natives are very friendly and we have been looked after and given good food.
2 April: I have been teaching the natives about Jesus and many are now Christians.
27 April: Disaster! Our brave leader Magellan has been killed in a battle between natives on the island of Mactan. I, Juan Sebastian del Cano, have taken over command of the expedition from my ship the Victoria.
25 September: After a long rest we have decided to continue our journey. We have abandoned the Concepcion because there are only 110 crewmen left..
12 October: We set sail for the Spice Islands.
6 November: Hurrah! We have reached the Spice Islands. We loaded up with spices galore. We have heard that the Portuguese fleet are trying to capture us.
12 November: We have decided to go separate routes. The Trinidad has sailed east for Panama in the Americas but we will sail west for Spain and hope to avoid the Portuguese ships that are searching for us.
6 September: After great hardship we have arrived at Sanlucar de Barrameda with only 17 crewmen and myself. There are great celebrations because we have CIRCUMNAVIGATED the world for the FIRST time ever.
The Trinidad tried to cross the Pacific but had to turn back. The crew was captured and jailed by the Portuguese. Sadly the Spanish did not appreciate what Magellan had done and there were many stories of his cruelty and errors in navigation. The Portuguese knew him only as a traitor.
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